Study Guides - Principles of Shellfish, Non-Marine Finfish and other Marine Food Products, Product Knowledge

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Guide Overview : This Study Guide has been set up for students and apprentices who want an introduction to the knowledge and understanding needed by the Level 3 occupational unit - Principles of Shellfish, Non-Marine Finfish and other Marine Food Products Product Knowledge.

The unit is also suitable for anyone interested in shellfish, non-marine finfish and the various other edible food products that come from the sea, their harvesting, preparation, trading, sales and consumption. We hope that this study guide (developed for Lee Cooper of Seafish by Adam Whittle) will be of interest to retailers, managers, students and others.

To provide feedback or suggest additional content please email the academy.

This study guide addresses the knowledge requirements of the Level 3 knowledge unit Principles of Shellfish, Non-Marine Finfish and other Marine Food Products Knowledge , providing access to resources on almost all marine shellfish and other species of commercial importance in the UK.

Model learner worksheets have been developed for apprenticeship providers and assessors to use as model answers. They can be made available upon request.

This blank worksheet [to be updated] can be used to guide your studies of a particular species. Your assessor will explain how many species you will need to study to complete your unit.

The Principles unit supported by this Study Guide is a substantial unit worth 5 credits in a vocational qualification or apprenticeship. It is a level 3 unit and to complete it would take a minimum of 25 hours of guided learning.

We hope you enjoy the journey as you explore marine food product knowledge.

NB:  This Study Guide is complemented by this one on Marine Finfish Product Knoweldge

 

Information leaflets Documents DVDs and Videos Presentations

 

General Resources for this Study Guide:

Almost all of the resources needed to complete a study of one or more species of shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine products caught in European waters and/ or sold in the UK retail market, can be found on the internet using the links described below.

We have tried to select links that are stable, likely to be kept up to date by their owners and appropriate to your studies. However, as they are out of our direct control we cannot be held responsible for the content that the links lead to. We have tried to provide multiple expert sources for each topic so that you can weigh the evidence yourself.

If you have any concerns over the content or discover broken links or out of date information then please email academy@seafish.co.uk

The following parts each relate to a specific learning outcome in the occupational unit Principles of Shellfish, Non-Marine Finfish and other Marine Food Products Knowledge.

Torry Advisory Notes - a series of 80+ booklets developed in the 1960s and 70s but still of great interest today.  This FAO Saved Search should take you to the list of 80+ TANs.  If it does not then websearch FAO Torry Advisory Note.

 

 

Part 1 :Understand the range of marine finfish species and principles of harvesting and stocks

Understand the different types and names of shellfish, non-marine fish and marine products harvested around the UK and how this is done.

1.1 Explain the range of commercial species that are commonly defined as shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine products including alternative legally acceptable or approved commercial names.

Describe the types and names of shellfish, non-marine fish and marine products commonly sold in the UK.

Suggested resources:

M&J Seafood – The Fish Book (See Salmon, trout and freshwater/ Shellfish)

The Seaweed Site

Seafish Seafood UK Market summary

Waitrose fish counter

Online Fishmonger - The Fish Society

Seafood Academy - Seafood Guide

Seafish Publications

Seafood Source: Seafood Handbook

Seafish: Fish and Shellfish Identification

Fish and shellfish names in the European Community


Fishbase: Marine science web site with access to pictures and names of fish from around the world.

Seafish Publications - a substantial and authorities source of information

Fish and Shellfish Identification open learning module NB: A DVD is also available from Seafish.



1.2 Describe the methods commonly used to harvest these species and locations /regions/grounds from which they are harvested

Describe the different harvest methods used around the UK and how these change depending on the type and location.

Suggested resources

The business of fishing video by Seafish.

Seafish basic fishing methods (see pots and traps)

Seafish Scallop dredging video

Seafood Watch fishing and farming methods

Marine Conservation Society - how fish are caught

FAO Fishing method fact sheets

Seaweed harvesting

Food Labelling guide for fishmongers


1.3 Describe the role of aquaculture in supplying shellfish, non-marine fish and marine products for retail sale

Explain how farming of shellfish, non-marine fish and marine products currently supplies into the UK retail market.

Suggested resources:

  • See Seafish's Aquaculture Profiles microsite
  • FAO 2018 Report on the status of world aquaculture is available here

    Marine Harvest – The world’s largest producer of Atlantic salmon.

    Loch Duart – smaller scale independent Scottish Salmon farm

    Seaweed Farming in the UK a future opportunity?

    European Commission – Farmed Fish and shellfish

    Seafish responsible sourcing guide - Mussels

    Seasalter Shellfish

    Scot-hatch – Scallop ranching


    1.4 Explain the current general state of stocks for shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine food product and species-specific issues including quotas, sustainability and the environmental impact of harvesting/aquaculture methods.

    Describe the current state of European stocks, including how much are harvested each year. Explain the sustainability and the impact on the environment of different harvest methods.

    Suggested resources:

    Controls of wild and farmed harvest for shellfish and non-marine finfish are typically controlled by licensed entry and a minimum landing size allowing wild stocks to reach a breeding age before harvest. As farmed stocks are produced in controlled conditions and driven by market demands farm sites and sizes are licenced and monitored rather than be controlled by a quota system.

    A series of guides in which Seafish explores topical issues affecting the UK seafood industry and information sheets summarising stock status and management of the main European stocks assessed by ICES.

    The Seafish Guide to Aquaculture

    EC Fisheries – Total allowable catches and quotas

    European Environment Agency

    EC Maritime affairs and fisheries

    ICES review 2015

    Scottish Government – Fish stocks

    World Ocean Review

    Marine Conservation Society - how fish are caught

    Marine Conservation Society – Fish to eat and fish to avoid

    Marine Conservation Society – Good Fish Guide

    Pros and cons of fish farming

    Environmental impact of fish farming

    Waitrose fish guide

    Tesco fish guide

    Sainsbury’s - Our future with fish

    M&S Forever Fish Initiative

    Scallop cultivation guide

     

    Presentations DVDs and Videos Documents Information leaflets

     

     

    Part 2 Understand the principles of processing, packing and distribution of shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine products and seasonal impacts

    Understand how shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine fish products are processed, packaged and distributed across the UK and how this is impacted by seasonal variations in supply.

    2.1 Summarise the different methods used to process and distribute live, chilled and frozen shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine food products commonly traded commercially in the UK

    Describe the methods processing and distributing chilled and frozen shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine food products sold in the UK.

    Suggested resources 

    The business of seafood processing

    Seafish crab processing video

    Seafish – Fishing downloads (see handling and preparation videos)

    Seafish – Seafood Processing Industry Report

    Macduff – Europe’s largest shellfish processor

    Seafish – 2012 survey of the UK Seafood Processing Industry

    Seafish – Shellfish Depuration Guidelines

    Menai Oysters Purification Systems

    2.2 Describe the impact of seasonal variations and adverse weather conditions on a specific product availability, condition, quality and typical price
    How do seasonal variations and bad weather impact availability, condition, quality and price of shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine food products?
    Weather and holiday periods such as Christmas, Chinese New Year and Easter cause significant variations in price and availability. If boats can’t harvest and land products due to bad weather, this will limit availability and lead to high market prices. Larger companies will try and limit these price variations by agreeing supply contracts which is often the case for large retailers and large farming companies supplying salmon. This is not as easy for smaller companies or other wild harvest products available in smaller quanities.
    Marine Conservation Society – buying seasonal fish

    Grimsby Telegraph – Fish prices soar as winter storms hit

    2.3 Clarify the range of shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine food products available including different packaging systems and processing methods such as MAP, Vac-Pack, smoking, marinating, drying
    Describe a typical range of shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine food products sold in UK retailers, including different processing and packaging methods such as Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging, smoked, marinated, and dried products.
    Waitrose Fish Range

    Fish for thought – online fishmonger

    M&S Fish and Shellfish range

    Asda Fish and Shellfish range

    Sainsbury’s Fish Range

    2.4 Describe where to find up to date information on shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine food products for use by seafood retailers, wholesalers and consumers.
    Where would you find up to date information on marine fish for use by wholesale, retail and consumers?
    Suggested resources
    Company specific training materials; Industry specific training schools and centres, Non departmental government bodies, online encyclopaedia, online video resources.

    3 Understand the principles of taste, flavour, nutrition of shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine food products and food safety issues
    Understand how to describe taste, flavour, nutritional benefits and food safety issues of shellfish, non-marine finfish and marine food products.

     

     

     

    Part 3 : 3 Understand the principles of taste, flavour, nutrition of marine finfish and food safety issues

    Understand how to describe taste, flavour, nutritional benefits and food safety issues of marine fish.

    3.1 Taste and texture attributes of chilled, frozen and defrosted fish and how these are perceived by customers

    Task - Describe taste and texture of typical UK chilled, frozen and defrosted marine fish. How do these attributes affects customers' preferences?

    Suggested resources

    Seafish – Buying Seafood

    Fish is the dish - a comprehensive website developed by Seafish with information on nutrition, health, handling and cooking of fish and shellfish.

    See retailer guides in Part 3.2 for detailed nutritional analysis of individual products.

    Fish and shellfish safety information available from this Food Standards Agency pages on hygienic processing of fish.

    Seafish guide to eating two portions of fish a week.

    Seafish's (free) online eLearning programme on food hygiene in the seafood industry


    3.2 Species-specific attributes including flavour, texture, colour, oil content and packaging/presentation that may influence individual buying choices

    Task - Describe how taste, texture, colour, oil content and packaging of UK marine fish may influence what customers choose to buy.

    Suggested resources

    Fish is the dish - usual suspects lexicon

    Seafish – Sensory Assessment Scoresheets

    Online Wholesaler/Retailer Resources:


     

    3.3 The general nutrition and health issues, including any species-specific recommended consumption targets/limits

    Task - Describe the nutritional and health issues of eating marine fish. What are the recommended consumption targets/ limits

    Suggested resources

    Wikipedia - Fish as Food

    Seafish – Health benefits

    NHS - Fish & Shellfish in your diet




    3.4 The specific food safety risks such as potential presence of allergens, contaminants, and other threats to human health and how these risks may be mitigated.

    Task - Describe the food safety, allergen, contaminant and other risks to human health from eating marine fish? How can these be minimised?

    Suggested resources

    FDA Guidance

    SACN Advice on fish consumption

    Scombrotoxin – Histamine

    NHS - Fish & Shellfish in your diet

    Presentations DVDs and Videos Documents Information leaflets

     

     

    Part 4 : Understand the principles of consumer needs for marine finfish and quality assessment issues

    What the customer needs from marine fish, how does the quality of fish affect these requirements?

    4.1 Typical cuts and portion sizes for adults and children, and suggested cooking methods/recipes for commercial species

    Task - Describe the typical cuts and portion sizes for adults and children. Give suggested cooking methods and recipes for popular UK fish.

    Suggested resources

    Direct Seafoods ltd– fish cuts

    M&J Seafood – cuts and portions

    Recipes4us - Fish species and cuts and portions

    Recipes4us - recipes

    BBC recipe ideas

    BUPA portion sizes


    4.2 What alternative or substitute products and species may be suitable for the consumer, and the dietary, cultural or religious factors that may mitigate your advice

    Task - Give alternative products and fish types for popular UK marine fish. Explain how the dietary or religious/ cultural factors may affect your advice.

    Suggested resources

    Fish Alternatives (within species guides) M&J Fishipedia

    Fish is the dish - substitute species info graphic

    Wikipedia - Comparison of Islamic and Jewish dietary laws


    4.3 The fish quality assessment and quality indicators that apply to marine finfish/finfish products, and the limitations of shelf-life and best before dates

    Task - Explain how can you use your senses to assess fish quality? Explain how different quality indicators of marine fish change as quality reduces and the limitations of shelf life and best before dates.

    Suggested resources

    Seafish – Factsheet on quality and Quality Assessment scoresheets

    Seafish quality assessment training videos on YouTube

    Scottish Govt – Fish Quality Assessment

    FAO Fish Quality Assessment

    Google Books search



    4.4 The appropriate recommendations to consumers for handling and storage prior to consumption.

    Task - Describe what recommendations you would offer to customers for handling and storing fish at home

    Suggested resources:

    NHS – How to store food properly

    Seafish - Buying fish


    Presentations DVDs and Videos Documents Information leaflets

    This study guide will be updated from time to time and new resources are added and older out of date sources replaced. We appreciate and welcome any feedback and suggestions for additional content you may have.